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From iA wiki

See also: Internet | Internet Protocol | DNS

Acronym: Uniform Resource Locators

Wikipedia: URL

An example of a URL is below:

URL's are used by web browsers to distribute information across the World Wide Web. The URL's are used over the DNS as Hyperlinks to provide a standard address for files on the web. URL text is case sensitive.

Acronym: URI = Uniform Resource Identifiers

From the Naming and Addressing Overview:

Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs, aka URLs) are short strings that identify resources in the web: documents, images, downloadable files, services, electronic mailboxes, and other resources. They make resources available under a variety of naming schemes and access methods such as HTTP, FTP, and Internet mail addressable in the same simple way. They reduce the tedium of "log in to this server, then issue this magic command ..." down to a single click.
The Web is an information space. Human beings have a lot of mental machinery for manipulating, imagining, and finding their way in spaces. URIs are the points in that space.
Unlike web data formats, where HTML is an important one, but not the only one, and web protocols, where HTTP has a similar status, there is only one Web naming/addressing technology: URIs.